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Title: Реалізація мовних прав населення Сумщини на початковому етапі кампанії з ліквідації неписьменності (1921-1923 рр.)
Other Titles: Реализация языковых прав населения Сумщины на начальном этапе кампании по ликвидации неграмотности (1921-1923 гг.)
Realization of the language rights ay the beginning of campaign for the liquidation of the illiteracy
Authors: Єпик, Л.І.
Keywords: лікнеп
рідна мова населення
українська мова
родной язык населения
украинский язык
a liquidation of illiteracy (liqunep)
a native language of the population
a book for reading (chytanka)
Ukrainian language
Issue Year: 2015
Publisher: Сумський державний університет
Citation: Єпик, Л.І. Реалізація мовних прав населення Сумщини на початковому етапі кампанії з ліквідації неписьменності (1921-1923 рр.) [Текст] / Л. І. Єпик // Сумська старовина. - 2015. - № ХLVІ. - С. 106-111.
Abstract: Автор статті на основі архівних документів аналізує мовний аспект початкового етапу кампанії з ліквідації неписьменності, який розпочався у 1921 р. Узагальнюючи звіти ліквідаторів неписьменності, офіційні розпорядження радянської влади в Україні, автор робить висновок, що при дотриманні мовних прав національних меншин в Україні, уже починаючи із 1921 р., ще до офіційного проголошення політики українізації, на території Сумщини робота лікнепів поступово переводиться на українську мову викладання, чому сприяли як державні органи, так і «Просвіти».
Автор статьи, используя архивные документы, анализирует языковой аспект начального этапа кампании по ликвидации неграмотности, который начался в 1921 г. Обобщая отчеты ликвидаторов неграмотности, официальные распоряжения и директивы власти в Украине, автор делает вывод, что при соблюдении языковых прав национальных меншинств в Украине, уже начиная с 1921г.. еще до официального провозглашения политики украинизации, на територии Сумщины работа ликбезов постепенно переводится на украинский язык преподавания, чему способствуют как государственные органы, так и «Просвиты».
The author pays a special attention to the process of the liquidation of the illiteracy in Ukraine looking at the realization of the language rights of the population because just during the 20-30ies of the 20th century a peculiar system was created and following just this system guaranteed s real success. General literacy is an elementary basis and an index of the development of any people’s culture. The illiteracy was practically abolished in many European countries up to the end of the19th century. At the same time a general literacy of the population in Ukraine at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries was quite low because of the state policy led by the Russian Empire. The beginning of the campaign for the liquidation the illiteracy in Ukraine is supposed to be the Decree of the Rada of People’s Commissars of Ukrainian Republic declared on May, 21 1921 in Kharkiv. It contained both some organization moments and language principles. All the uneducated population of the Republic from 8 till 50 years old had to be taught to read and write in Ukrainian and Russian or any other language according to the wish of a person. Training was made both at the state schools and the special schools for uneducated population. People’s Houses, churches, synagogues, school clubs, private houses and suitable buildings at the factories, plants and offices were used for the purpose to liquid the illiteracy. People who tried to avoid the duty established by the Law ant to make the obstacles for those who wanted to attend schools were prosecuted. There were special inspections for determination of real opportunities of organizations for liquidation of illiteracy. Their aim was to define the people’s attitude to education and availability of specialists who can teach any language. A bright example of such an inspection was a report of a school instructor from Konotop district (povit) about the state of education in the district (povit). Following the facts from the report one can make a conclusion that there were real conditions for a campaign of liquidation the illiteracy in Sumy Region just by the way of using Ukrainian language. Above all in the summer of 1920 the povit education in Konotop got an instructive document where the expression “national - cultural autonomy of Ukrainian peasants” was introduced. It was mentioned that school education in Nizhyn, Oster, Krolevets districts had to be done in Ukrainian language. There was an opinion that dividing into nationalities had to assist the classical consciousness of the peasants. Moreover Ukrainian language had to help to liquid national distrust to the power and to propagandize the ideas of socialism and proletarian internationalism. Konotop povit education was recommended to struggle on one hand with russiafication and on the other hand to fight with Ukrainian shovinism, to direct the efforts for neutralization the displays of “Petlura agitation” and to explain the population their rights for free cultural development. The campaign for literacy was not only educational but political as well. So, there was a lack of books containing new political contests. The paper crisis of that time was one more obstacle for a quick decision of such a problem. The education was provided using the texts from the newspapers: “Illiteracy, Go Away!” he first new ABC-books were published in 1923 1924 in Russian. Not long ago they were translated in necessary way. Publishing ABC-books for national minorities was begun in1926. Books for reading (chytanky) for German, Jewish and Polish organizations were bought in Kharkiv uo to the end of 1920ies but it was limited.
Type: Article
Appears in Collections:Сумська старовина

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